Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

PM.1901 Emil Adolf von Behring

Germany. 15.03.1854-31.03.1917.

“for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”

PM.1902 Sir Ronald Ross

UK. 13.05.1857-16.09.1932.

“for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it”

PM.1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen

Denmark. 15.12.1860-24.09.1904.

“in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science”

PM.1904 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

Russia. 14.09.1849-27.02.1936.

“in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged”

PM.1905 Robert Koch

Germany. 11.12.1843-27.05.1910.

“for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis”

PM.1906 Santiago Ramón-y-Cajal

Spain. 01.05.1852-17.10.1934.

“in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

PM.1906 Camillo Golgi

Italy. 07.07.1843-21.01.1926.

“in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

PM.1907 Charles-Louis-Alphonse Laveran

France. 18.06.1845-18.05.1922.

“in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases”

PM.1908 Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov

Russia. 15.05.1845-15.07.1916.

“in recognition of their work on immunity”

PM.1908 Paul Ehrlich

Germany. 14.03.1854-20.08.1915.

“in recognition of their work on immunity”

PM.1909 Emil Theodor Kocher

Switzerland. 25.08.1841-27.07.1917.

“for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland”

PM.1910 Albrecht Kossel

Germany. 16.09.1853-05.07.1927.

“in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances”

PM.1911 Allvar Gullstrand

Sweden. 05.06.1862-28.07.1930.

“for his work on the dioptrics of the eye”

PM.1912 Alexis Carrel Каррель Алексис (Karrel Alexis)

USA. 28.06.1873-5.11.1944.

“in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs”

PM.1913 Charles Robert Richet

France. 25.08.1850-04.12.1935.

“in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis”

PM.1914 Robert Bárány

Austria. 22.04.1876-08.04.1936.

“for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus”

PM.1919 Jules-Jean-Baptiste-Vincent Bordet

Belgium. 13.06.1870-06.04.1961.

“for his discoveries relating to immunity”

PM.1920 Schack August Steenberg Krogh

Denmark. 15.11.1874-13.09.1949.

“for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism”

PM.1922 Sir Archibald Vivian Hill

UK. 26.09.1886-03.06.1977.

“for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle”

PM.1922 Otto Fritz Meyerhof

Germany. 12.04.1884-06.10.1951.

“for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle”

PM.1923 John James Richard Macleod

Canada. 06.09.1876-16.03.1935.

“for the discovery of insulin”

PM.1923 Sir Frederick Grant Banting

Canada. 14.11.1891-21.02.1941.

“for the discovery of insulin”

PM.1924 Willem Einthoven

The Netherland. 21.05.1860-29.09.1927.

“for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram”

PM.1926 Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger

Denmark. 23.04.1867-30.01.1928.

“for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma”

PM.1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg

Austria. 07.03.1857-27.09.1940.

“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica”

PM.1928 Charles Jules Henri Nicolle

France. 21.09.1866-28.02.1936.

“for his work on typhus”

PM.1929 Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins

UK. 20.06.1861-16.05.1947.

“for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins”

PM.1929 Christiaan Eijkman

The Netherland. 11.08.1858-05.11.1930.

“for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin”

PM.1930 Karl Landsteiner

USA. 14.06.1868-26.06.1943.

“for his discovery of human blood groups”

PM.1931 Otto Heinrich Warburg

Germany. 08.10.1883-01.08.1970.

“for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme”

PM.1932 Sir Charles Scott Sherrington

UK. 27.11.1857-04.03.1952.

“for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

PM.1932 Lord Edgar Douglas Adrian

UK. 30.11.1889-04.08.1977

“for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

PM.1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan

USA. 25.09.1866-04.12.1945.

“for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity”

PM.1934 George Hoyt Whipple

USA. 28.08.1878-01.02.1976.

“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

PM.1934 William Parry Murphy

USA. 06.02.1892-09.10.1987.

“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

PM.1934 George Richards Minot

USA. 02.12.1885-25.02.1950.

“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

PM.1935 Hans Spemann

Germany. 27.06.1869-9.09.1941.

“for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development”

PM.1936 Sir Henry Hallett Dale

UK. 09.06.1875-23.07.1968.

“for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

PM.1936 Otto Loewi

Germany. 03.06.1873-25.12.1961.

“for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

PM.1937 Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrapolt

USA. 16.09.1893-22.10.1986.

“for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid”

PM.1938 Corneille Jean François Heymans

Belgium. 28.03.1892-18.07.1968.

“for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration”

PM.1939 Gerhard Domagk

Germany. 30.10.1895-24.04.1964.

“for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil”

PM.1943 Henrik Carl Peter Dam

Denmark. 21.02.1895-17.04.1976.

“for his discovery of vitamin K”

PM.1943 Edward Adelbert Doisy

USA. 03.11.1893-23.10.1986.

“for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K”

PM.1944 Joseph John Erlanger

USA. 05.01.1874-05.12.1965.

“for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

PM.1944 Herbert Spencer Gasser

USA. 05.07.1888-11.05.1963.

“for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

PM.1945 Sir Ernst Boris Chain

UK. 19.06.1906-12.08.1979.

“for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

PM.1945 Sir Alexander Fleming

UK. 06.08.1881-11.03.1955.

“for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

PM.1945 Sir Howard Walter Florey

UK. 24.09.1898-21.02.1968.

“for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

PM.1946 Hermann Joseph Muller

USA. 21.12.1890-05.04.1967.

“for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”

PM.1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori

USA. 05.12.1896-20.10.1984.

“for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

PM.1947 Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz

USA. 15.08.1896-26.10.1957.

“for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

PM.1947 Bernardo Alberto Houssay

Argentina. 10.04.1887-21.09.1971.

“for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar”

PM.1948 Paul Hermann Müller

Switzerland. 12.01.1899-12.10.1965.

“for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods”

PM.1949 Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz

Portugal. 29.11.1874-13.12.1955.

“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses”

PM.1949 Walter Rudolf Hess

Switzerland. 17.03.1881-12.08.1973.

PM.1950 Tadeus Reichstein

USA. 20.07.1897-01.08.1996.

“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

PM.1950 Philip Showalter Hench

USA. 28.02.1896-30.03.1965.

“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

PM.1950 Edward Calvin Kendall

USA. 08.03.1886-04.05.1972.

“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

PM.1951 Max Theiler

USA. 30.01.1899-11.08.1972.

“for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it”

PM.1952 Selman Abraham Waksman

USA. 22.07.1888-16.08.1973.

“for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis”

PM.1953 Hans Adolf Krebs

UK. 25.08.1900-22.11.1981.

“for his discovery of the citric acid cycle”

PM.1953 Fritz Albert Lipmann

USA. 12.06.1899-24.07.1986.

“for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”

PM.1954 Frederick Chapman Robbins

USA. 25.08.1916-04.08.2003.

“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

PM.1954 Thomas Huckle Weller

USA. 15.06.1915-23.04.2008.

“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

PM.1954 John Franklin Enders

USA. 10.02.1897-08.09.1985.

“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

PM.1955 Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell

Sweden. 06.07.1903-15.08.1982.

“for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes”

PM.1956 Dickinson Woodruff Richards

USA. 30.10.1895-23.02.1973.

“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

PM.1956 Werner Theodor Otto Forssmann

Germany. 29.08.1904-01.06.1979.

“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

PM.1956 André-Frédéric Cournand

USA. 24.09.1895-19.02.1988.

“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

PM.1957 Daniel Bovet

Italy. 23.03.1907-08.04.1992.

“for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles”

PM.1958 Joshua Lederberg

USA. 23.05.1925-02.02.2008.

“for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria”

PM.1958 George Wells Beadle

USA. 22.10.1903-09.06.1989.

“for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

PM.1958 Edward Lawrie Tatum

USA. 14.12.1909-05.11.1975.

“for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

PM.1959 Severo Ochoa

USA. 24.09.1905-01.11.1993.

“for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

PM.1959 Arthur Kornberg

USA. 03.03.1918-26.10.2007.

“for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

PM.1960 Peter Brian Medawar

UK. 28.02.1915-02.10.1987.

“for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”

PM.1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet

Australian. 03.09.1899-31.08.1985.

“for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”

PM.1961 Georg von Békésy

USA. 03.06.1899-13.06.1972.

“for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea”

PM.1962 Francis Harry Compton Crick

UK. 08.06.1916-28.07.2004.

“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

PM.1962 Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins

UK. 15.12.1916-05.10.2004.

“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

PM.1962 James Dewey Watson

USA. Born: 06.04.1928.

“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

PM.1963 Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley

UK. Born: 22.11.1917.

“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

PM.1963 Sir John Carew Eccles

Australian. 27.01.1903-02.05.1997.

“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

PM.1963 Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin

UK. 05.02.1914-20.12.1998. Кембриджский университет – Премия также присуждена Экклсу Дж. и Хаксли Э.

“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

PM.1964 Konrad Emil Bloch

USA. 21.01.1912-15.10.2000.

“for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

PM.1964 Feodor Lynen

Germany. 06.04.1911-06.08.1979.

“for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

PM.1965 André Michel Lwoff

France. 08.05.1902-30.09.1994.

“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

PM.1965 Jacques-Lucien Monod

France. 09.02.1910-31.05.1976.

“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

PM.1965 François Jacob

France. Born: 17.06.1920.

“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

PM.1966 Charles Brenton Huggins

USA. 22.09.1901-12.01.1997.

“for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer”

PM.1966 Francis Peyton Rous

USA. 05.10.1879-16.02.1970.

“for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”

PM.1967 George Wald

USA. 18.11.1906-12.04.1997.

“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

PM.1967 Haldan Keffer Hartline

USA. 22.12.1903-17.03.1983.

“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

PM.1967 Ragnar Arthur Granit

Sweden. 30.10.1900-12.03.1991.

“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

PM.1968 Robert William Holley

USA. 28.01.1922-11.02.1993.

“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”
“За расшифровку генетического кода и его функций в синтезе белков”

PM.1968 Marshall Warren Nirenberg

USA. 10.04.1927-15.01.2010.

“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

PM.1968 Har Gobind Khorana

USA. Born: 09.01.1922.

“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

PM.1969 Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück

USA. 04.09.1906-09.03.1981.

“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

PM.1969 Alfred Day Hershey

USA. 04.12.1908-22.05.1997. Институт Карнеги в Нью-Йорке – Премия также присуждена Дельбрюку М. и Лурию С.

“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

PM.1969 Salvador Edward Luria

USA. 13.08.1912-06.02.1991.

“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

PM.1970 Julius Axelrod

USA. 30.05.1912-29.12.2004.

“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

PM.1970 Ulf Svante von Euler

Sweden. 07.02.1905-18.03.1983.

“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

PM.1970 Sir Bernard Katz

UK. 26.03.1911-20.04.2003.

“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

PM.1971 Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr.

USA. 19.11.1915-09.03.1974.

“for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”

PM.1972 Gerald Maurice Edelman

USA. Born: 01.07.1929.

“for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

PM.1972 Rodney Robert Porter

UK. 08.10.1917-06.09.1985.

“for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

PM.1973 Karl von Frisch

Germany. 20.11.1886-12.06.1982.

“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

PM.1973 Nikolaas Tinbergen

UK. 15.04.1907-21.12.1998.

“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

PM.1973 Konrad Zacharias Lorenz

Austria. 07.11.1903-27.02.1989.

“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

PM.1974 Albert Claude

Belgium. 24.08.1899-22.05.1983.

“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

PM.1974 George Emil Palade

USA. 19.11.1912-07.10.2008.

“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

PM.1974 Christian Rene, viscount de Duve

USA. Born: 02.10.1917.

“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

PM.1975 David Baltimore

USA. Born: 07.03.1938.

“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

PM.1975 Renato Dulbecco

USA. Born: 22.02.1914.

“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

PM.1975 Howard Martin Temin

USA. 10.12.1934-09.02.1994.

“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

PM.1976 Daniel Carleton Gajdusek

USA. 09.09.1923-12.12.2008.

“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

PM.1976 Baruch Samuel Blumberg

USA. Born: 28.07.1925.

“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

PM.1977 Roger Guillemin

USA. Born: 11.01.1924.

“for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

PM.1977 Andrew Victor Schally

USA. Born: 30.11.1926.

“for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

PM.1977 Rosalyn Yalow Sussman Ялоу Розалин Сасмен (Jalow Rosalin Sasmen)

USA. Born: 19.07.1921.

“for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones”

PM.1978 Hamilton Othanel Smith Смит Гамильтон (Smith Hamilton)

USA. Born 23.08.1931.

“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

PM.1978 Werner Arber

Switzerland. Born: 03.06.1929.

“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

PM.1978 Daniel Nathans

USA. 30.10.1928-16.11.1999.

“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

PM.1979 Allan McLeod Cormack

USA. 23.02.1924-07.05.1998.

“for the development of computer assisted tomography”

PM.1979 Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield

UK. 28.08.1919-12.08.2004.

“for the development of computer assisted tomography”

PM.1980 Baruj Benacerraf

USA. Born: 29.10.1920.

“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

PM.1980 Jean Dausset

France. 19.10.1916-06.06.2009.

“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

PM.1980 George Davis Snell

USA. 19.12.1903-06.06.1996.

“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

PM.1981 Torsten Nils Wiesel

USA. Born: 03.06.1924.

“for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

PM.1981 David Hunter Hubel

USA. Born: 27.02.1926.

“for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

PM.1981 Roger Wolcott Sperry

USA. 20.08.1913-17.04.1994.

“for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres”

PM.1982 Sir John Robert Vane

UK. 29.03.1927-19.11.2004.

“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

PM.1982 Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson

Sweden. Born: 21.05.1934.

“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

PM.1982 Sune Karl Bergström

Sweden. 10.01.1916-15.08.2004.

“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

PM.1983 Barbara McClintock

USA. 16.06.1902-02.09.1992.

“for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”

PM.1984 Niels Kaj Jerne

Switzerland. 23.12.1911-07.10.1994.

“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

PM.1984 César Milstein

UK. 08.10.1927-24.03.2002.

“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

PM.1984 Georges Jean Franz Köhler

Switzerland. 17.04.1946-01.03.1995. Институт иммунологии в Базеле – Премия также присуждена Ерне Н. и Мильштейну Ц.

“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

PM.1985 Michael Stuart Brown

USA. Born: 13.04.1941.

“for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

PM.1985 Joseph Leonard Goldstein

USA. Born: 18.04.1940.

“for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

PM.1986 Stanley Cohen

USA. Born: 17.11.1922.

“for their discoveries of growth factors”

PM.1986 Rita Levi-Montalcini

Italy. Born: 22.04.1909.

“for their discoveries of growth factors”

PM.1987 Susumu Tonegawa

USA. Born: 06.09.1939.

“for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity”

PM.1988 Sir James Whyte Black

UK. 14.06.1924-21.03.2010.

“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

PM.1988 Gertrude Belle Elion

USA. 23.01.1918-21.02.1999.

“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

PM.1988 George Herbert Hitchings

USA. 18.04.1905-27.02.1998.

“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

PM.1989 John Michael Bishop

USA. Born: 22.02.1936.

“for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

PM.1989 Harold Elliot Varmus

USA. Born: 18.12.1939.

“for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

PM.1990 Edward Donnall Thomas>

USA. Born: 15.03.1920.

“for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

PM.1990 Joseph Edward Murray

USA. Born: 01.04.1919.

“for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

PM.1991 Bert Sakmann

Germany. Born: 12.06.1942.

“for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

PM.1991 Erwin Neher

Germany. Born: 20.03.1944.

“for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

PM.1992 Edwin Gerhard Krebs

США. 06.06.1918-21.12.2009.

“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

PM.1992 Edmond Henri Fischer

USA. Born: 06.04.1920.

“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

PM.1993 Richard John Roberts

USA. Born: 06.09.1943.

“for their discoveries of split genes”

PM.1993 Phillip Allen Sharp

USA. Born: 06.06.1944.

“for their discoveries of split genes”

PM.1994 Alfred Goodman Gilman

USA. Born: 01.07.1941.

“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

PM.1994 Martin Rodbell

USA. 01.12.1925-07.12.1998.

“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

PM.1995 Eric Francis Wieschaus

USA. Born: 08.06.1947.

“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

PM.1995 Edward B. Lewis (the “B” did not stand for anything)

USA. 20.05.1918-21.06.2004.

“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

PM.1995 Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

Germany. Born: 20.10.1942.

“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

PM.1996 Peter Charles Doherty

Australia. Born: 15.10.1940.

“for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

PM.1996 Rolf Martin Zinkernagel

Switzerland. Born: 06.01.1944.

“for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

PM.1997 Stanley Ben Prusiner

USA. Born: 28.05.1942.

“for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection”

PM.1998 Louis Joseph Ignarro

USA. Born: 31.05.1941.

“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

PM.1998 Ferid Murad

USA. Born: 14.09.1936.

“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

PM.1998 Robert Francis Furchgott

USA. 04.06.1916-19.05.2009.

“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

PM.1999 Günter Blobel

Germany. Born: 21.05.1936.

“for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell”

PM.2000 Paul Greengard

USA. Born: 11.12.1925.

“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

PM.2000 Arvid Carlsson

Sweden. Born: 25.01.1923.

“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

PM.2000 Eric Richard Kandel

USA. Born: 07.11.1929.

“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

PM.2001 Leland Harrison Hartwell

USA. Born: 30.10.1939.

“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

PM.2001 Sir Richard Timothy Hunt

UK. Born: 19.02.1943.

“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

PM.2001 Sir Paul Maxime Nurse

UK. Born: 25.01.1949.

“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

PM.2002 Sydney Brenner

UK. Born: 13.01.1927.

“for their discoveries concerning ‘genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

PM.2002 Howard Robert Horvitz

USA. Born: 08.05.1947.

“for their discoveries concerning ‘genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

PM.2002 Sir John Edward Sulston

UK. Born: 27.03.1942.

“for their discoveries concerning ‘genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

PM.2003 Paul Christian Lauterbur

USA. 06.05.1929-27.03.2007.

“for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

PM.2003 Sir Peter Mansfield

UK. Born: 09.10.1933.

“for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

PM.2004 Richard Axel

USA. Born: 02.07.1946.

“for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”

PM.2004 Linda B. Buck

USA. Born: 29.01.1947.

“for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”

PM.2005 Barry James Marshall

Australia. Born: 30.09.1951.

“for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

PM.2005 John Robin Warren

Australia. Born: 11.06.1937.

“for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

PM.2006 Andrew Zachary Fire

USA. Born: 27.04.1959.

“for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

PM.2006 Craig Cameron Mello

USA. Born: 19.10.1960.

“for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

PM.2007 Mario Renato Capecchi

USA. Born: 06.10.1937.

“for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

PM.2007 Sir Martin John Evans

UK. Born: 01.01.1941.

“for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

PM.2007 Oliver Smithies

USA. Born: 23.06.1925.

“for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

PM.2008 Harald zur Hausen

Germany. Born: 11.03.1936.

“for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer”

PM.2008 Françoise Barré-Sinoussi

France. Born: 30.07.1947.

“for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

PM.2008 Luc Montagnier

France. Born: 18.08.1932.

“for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

PM.2009 Elizabeth Helen Blackburn

USA. Born: 26.11.1948.

“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

PM.2009 Carol Widney Greider

USA. Born: 15.04.1961.

“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

PM.2009 Jack William Szostak

USA. Born: 09.11.1952.

“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

PM.2010 Robert Geoffrey Edwards

UK. Born: 27.09.1925.

“for the development of in vitro fertilization”

PM.2011 Bruce Alan Beutler

USA. Born: 29.12.1957.

“for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

PM.2011 Jules Alphonse Hoffmann

Luxembourg. Born: 02.08.1941.

“for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

PM.2011 Ralph Marvin Steinman

Canada. 14.01.1943-30.09.2011.

“for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity”