Nobel Prize in Physics

Ph.1901 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

Germany. 27.03.1845-10.02.1923.
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him”

Ph.1902 Pieter Zeeman

The Netherlands. 25.05.1865-09.10.1943.
“in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena”

Ph.1902 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz

The Netherlands. 18.07.1853-04.02.1928.
“in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena”

Ph.1903 Antoine Henri Becquerel

France. 15.12.1852-25.08.1908.
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity”

Ph.1903 Pierre Curie

France. 15.05.1859-19.04.1906.
“in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”

Ph.1903 Marie Curie, née Sklodowska

France. 07.11.1867-04.07.1934.
“in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”

Ph.1904 Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)

UK. 12.11.1842-30.06.1919.
“for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies”

Ph.1905 Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard

Germany. 07.06.1862-20.05.1947.
“for his work on cathode rays”

Ph.1906 Joseph John Thomson

UK. 18.12.1856-30.08.1940.
“in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases”

Ph.1907 Albert Abraham Michelson

USA. 19.12.1852-09.05.1931.
“for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid”

Ph.1908 Ionas-Ferdinand-Gabriel Lippmann

France. 16.08.1845-13.07.1921.
“for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference”

Ph.1909 Karl Ferdinand Braun

Germany. 06.06.1850-20.04.1918.
“in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy”

Ph.1909 Guglielmo Marconi

Italy. 25.04.1874-20.07.1937.
“in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy”

Ph.1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals

The Netherlands. 23.11.1837-08.03.1923.
“for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids”

Ph.1911 Wilhelm Wien

Germany. 13.01.1864-30.08.1928.
“for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat”

Ph.1912 Nils Gustaf Dalén

Sweden. 30.11.1869-9.12.1937.
“for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys”

Ph.1913 Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes

The Netherlands. 21.09.1853-21.02.1926.
“for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium”

Ph.1914 Max Theodr Felix von Laue

Germany. 09.10.1879-24.04.1960.
“for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals”

Ph.1915 William Lawrence Bragg

UK. 31.03.1890-1.07.1971.
“for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays”

Ph.1915 Sir William Henry Bragg

UK. 02.07.1862-12.03.1942.
“for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays”

Ph.1917 Charles Glover Barkla

UK. 27.06.1877-23.10.1944.
“for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements”

Ph.1918 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck

Germany. 23.04.1858-04.10.1947.
“in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta”

Ph.1919 Johannes Stark

Germany. 15.4.1874-21.06.1957.
“for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields”

Ph.1920 Charles-Edouard Guillaume

Switzerland. 15.02.1861-13.05.1938.
“in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys”

Ph.1921 Albert Einstein

Germany and Switzerland. 14.03.1879-18.04.1955.
“for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”

Ph.1922 Niels Henrik David Bohr

Denmark. 07.10.1885-18.11.1962.
“for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them”

Ph.1923 Robert Andrews Millikan

USA. 22.03.1868-19.12.1953.
“for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect”

Ph.1924 Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn

Sweden. 03.12.1886-26.09.1978.
“for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy”

Ph.1925 Gustav Ludwig Hertz

Germany. 22.07.1887-30.10.1975.
“for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom”

Ph.1925 James Franck

Germany. 26.08.1882-21.05.1964.
“for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom”

Ph.1926 Jean-Baptiste Perrin

France. 30.09.1870-17.04.1942.
“for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium”

Ph.1927 Arthur Holly Compton

USA. 10.09.1892-15.03.1962.

“for his discovery of the effect named after him”

Ph.1927 Charles Thomson Rees Wilson

UK. 14.02.1869-15.11.1959.
“for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour”

Ph.1928 Owen Willians Richardson

UK. 26.04.1879-15.02.1959.
“for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him”

Ph.1929 Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie

France. 15.08.1892-19.03.1987.
“for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons”

Ph.1930 Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

India. 07.11.1888-21.11.1970.
“for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him”

Ph.1932 Werner Karl Heisenberg

Germany. 05.12.1901-01.02.1976.
“for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen”

Ph.1933 Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac

UK. 08.08.1902-20.10.1984.
“for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory”

Ph.1933 Erwin Schrödinger

Austia. 12.08.1887-04.01.1961.
“for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory”

Ph.1935 Sir James Chadwick

UK. 20.10.1891-24.07.1974.
“for the discovery of the neutron”

Ph.1936 Carl David Anderson

USA. 03.09.1905-11.01.1991.
“for his discovery of the positron”

Ph.1936 Victor Franz Hess

Austria. 24.06.1883-17.12.1964.
“for his discovery of cosmic radiation”

Ph.1937 Sir George Paget Thomson

UK. 03.05.1892-10.09.1975.
“for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals”

Ph.1937 Clinton Joseph Davisson

USA. 22.10.1881-01.02.1958.
“for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals”

Ph.1938 Enrico Fermi

Italy. 29.09.1901-28.11.1954.
“for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons”

Ph.1939 Ernest Orlando Lawrence

USA. 08.08.1901-27.08.1958.
“for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements”

Ph.1943 Otto Stern

USA. 17.02.1888-17.08.1969.
“for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton”

Ph.1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi

USA. 29.07.1898-11.01.1988.
“for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei”

Ph.1945 Wolfgang Pauli

USA. 25.04.1900-15.12.1958.
“for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle”

Ph.1946 Percy Williams Bridgman

USA. 21.04.1882-20.08.1961.
“for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics”

Ph.1947 Sir Edward Victor Appleton

UK. 06.09.1892-21.04.1965.
“for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer”

Ph.1948 Patrick Maynard Stuart Lord Blackett

UK. 18.11.1897-13.07.1974.
“for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation”

Ph.1949 Hideki Yukawa

Japan. 23.01.1907-08.09.1981.
“for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces”

Ph.1950 Cecil Frank Powell

UK. 05.12.1903-09.08.1969.
“for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method”

Ph.1951 Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton

Ireland. 06.10.1903-25.06.1995.
“for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles”

Ph.1951 Sir John Douglas Cockcroft

UK. 27.05.1897-18.09.1967.
“for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles”

Ph.1952 Edward Mills Purcell

USA. 30.08.1912-07.03.1997.
“for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith”

Ph.1952 Felix Bloch

USA. 23.10.1905-10.09.1983.
“for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith”

Ph.1953 Frits (Frederik) Zernike

The Netherlands. 16.07.1888-10.03.1966.
“for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope”

Ph.1954 Max Born

UK. 11.12.1882-05.01.1970.
“for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction”

Ph.1954 Walther Wilhelm George Bothe

Germany. 08.01.1891-08.02.1957.
“for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith”

Ph.1955 Polykarp Kusch

USA. 26.01.1911-20.03.1993.
“for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron”

Ph.1955 Willis Eugene Lamb

USA. 12.07.1913-15.05.2008.
“for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum”

Ph.1956 John Bardeen

USA. 23.05.1908-30.01.1991.
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

Ph.1956 Walter Houser Brattain

USA. 10.02.1902-13.10.1987.
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

Ph.1956 William Bradford Shockley

USA. 13.02.1910-12.08.1989.
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

Ph.1957 Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee

USA. born: 24.11.1926.
“for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles”

Ph.1957 Chen Ning Yang

USA. born: 01.10.1922.
“for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles”

Ph.1958 Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov

Russia. 28.07.1904-06.01.1990.
“for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”

Ph.1958 Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm

Russia. 08.07.1895-12.04.1871.
“for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”

Ph.1958 Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank

Russia. 23.10.1908-22.06.1990.
“for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”

Ph.1959 Emilio Gino Segrè

USA. 01.02.1905-22.04.1989.
“for their discovery of the antiproton”

Ph.1959 Owen Chamberlain

USA. 10.07.1920-28.02.2006.
“for their discovery of the antiproton”

Ph.1960 Donald Arthur Glaser

USA. born: 21.09.1926.
“for the invention of the bubble chamber”

Ph.1961 Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer

USA. born: 31.01.1929.
“for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name”

Ph.1961 Robert Hofstadter

USA. 05.02.1915-17.11.1990.
“for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons”

Ph.1962 Lev Davidovich Landau

Russia. 22.01.1908-01.04.1968.
“for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium”

Ph.1963 Eugene Paul Jeno Wigner

USA. 17.11.1902-01.01.1995.
“for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles”

Ph.1963 Maria Goeppert-Mayer

USA. 28.06.1906-20.02.1972.
“for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure”

Ph.1963 Johannes Hans Daniel Jensen

Germany. 25.06.1907-11.02.1973.
“for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure”

Ph.1964 Charles Hard Townes

USA. born: 28.07.1915.
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

Ph.1964 Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov

Russia. 14.12.1922-01.07.2001.
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

Ph.1964 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov

Russia. 11.07.1916-08.01.2002.
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

Ph.1965 Julian Seimor Schwinger

USA. 12.02.1918-16.07.1994.
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

Ph.1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga

Japan. 31.03.1906-08.07.1979.
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

Ph.1965 Richard Phillips Feynman

USA. 11.05.1918-15.02.1988.
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

Ph.1966 Alfred Kastler

France. 03.05.1902-07.01.1984.
“for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms”

Ph.1967 Hans Albrecht Bethe

USA. 02.07.1906-06.03.2005.
“for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars”

Ph.1968 Luis Walter Alvarez

USA. 13.06.1911-01.09.1988.
“for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis”

Ph.1969 Murray Gell-Mann

USA. born: 15.09.1929.
“for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions”

Ph.1970 Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén

Sweden. 30.05.1908-02.04.1995.
“for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro- dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics”

Ph.1970 Louis Eugène Félix Néel

France. 22.11.1904-17.11.2000.
“for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics”

Ph.1971 Dennis Gabor

UK. 05.06.1900-08.02.1979.
“for his invention and development of the holographic method”

Ph.1972 Leon Niels Cooper

USA. born: 28.02.1930.
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

Ph.1972 John Bardeen

USA. 23.05.1908-30.01.1991.
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

Ph.1972 John Robert Schrieffer

USA. born: 31.05.1931.
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

Ph.1973 Leo Esaki

USA. born: 12.03.1925.
“for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively”

Ph.1973 Ivar Giaever

USA. born: 05.04.1929.
“for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively”

Ph.1973 Brian David Josephson

UK. born: 04.01.1940.
“for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects”

Ph.1974 Antony Hewish

UK. born: 11.05.1924.
“for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars”

Ph.1974 Sir Martin Ryle

UK. 27.09.1918-14.10.1984.
“for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars”

Ph.1975 Ben Roy Mottelson

Denmark. born: 09.07.1926.
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”

Ph.1975 Leo James Rainwater

США. 09.12.1917-31.05.1986.
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”

Ph.1975 Aage Niels Bohr

Denmark. 19.06.1922-08.09.2009.
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”

Ph.1976 Burton Richter

USA. born: 22.03.1931.
“for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”

Ph.1976 Samuel Chao Chung Ting

USA. born: 27.01.1936.
“for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”

Ph.1977 Philip Warren Anderson

USA. born: 13.12.1923.
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”

Ph.1977 John Hasbrouck van Vleck

USA. 13.03.1899-27.10.1980.
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”

Ph.1977 Sir Nevill Francis Mott

UK. 30.09.1905-08.08.1996.
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”

Ph.1978 Robert Woodrow Wilson

USA. born: 10.01.1936.
“for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation”

Ph.1978 Arno Allan Penzias

USA. born: 26.04.1933.
“for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation”

Ph.1978 Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa

Russia. 08.07.1894-08.04.1984.
“for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics”

Ph.1979 Steven Weinberg

USA. born: 03.05.1933.
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

Ph.1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow

USA. born: 05.12.1932.
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

Ph.1979 Abdus Salam

UK. 29.01.1926-21.11.1996.
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

Ph.1980 Val Logsdon Fitch

USA. born: 10.03.1923.
“for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”

Ph.1980 James Watson Cronin

USA. born: 29.09.1931.
“for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”

Ph.1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen

USA. born: 11.03.1920.
“for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy”

Ph.1981 Arthur Leonard Schawlow

USA. 05.05.1921-28.04.1999.
“for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy”

Ph.1981 Kai Manne Siegbahn

Sweden. 20.04.1918-20.07.2007.
“for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy”

Ph.1982 Kenneth Geddes Wilson

USA. born: 08.06.1936.
“for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions”

Ph.1983 Subramanyan Chandrasekhar

USA. 19.10.1910-21.08.1995.
“for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars”

Ph.1983 William Alfred Fowler

USA. 09.08.1911-14.03.1995.
“for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe”

Ph.1984 Simon van der Meer

Switzerland. born: 24.11.1925.
“for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction”

Ph.1984 Carlo Rubbia

Switzerland. born: 31.03.1934.
“for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction”

Ph.1985 Klaus von Klitzing

Germany. born: 28.06.1943.
“for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect”

Ph.1986 Ernst Ruska

Germany. 25.12.1906-27.05.1988.
“for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope”

Ph.1986 Heinrich Rohrer

Switzerland. born: 06.06.1933.
“for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope”

Ph.1986 Gerd Binnig

Switzerland. born: 20.07.1947.
“for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope”

Ph.1987 J. Georg Bednorz

Switzerland. born: 16.05.1950.
“for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials”

Ph.1987 Karl Alexander Müller

Switzerland. born: 20.04.1927.
“for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials”

Ph.1988 Leon Max Lederman

USA. born: 15.07.1922.
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

Ph.1988 Jack Steinberger

Switzerland. born: 25.05.1921.
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

Ph.1988 Melvin Schwartz

USA. 02.11.1932-28.08.2006.
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

Ph.1989 Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.

USA. born: 27.08.1915.
“for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks”

Ph.1989 Hans Georg Dehmelt

USA. born: 09.09.1922.
“for the development of the ion trap technique”

Ph.1989 Wolfgang Paul

Germany. 10.08.1913-07.12.1993.
“for the development of the ion trap technique”

Ph.1990 Richard Edward Taylor

USA. born: 02.11.1929.
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

Ph.1990 Jerome Isaak Friedman

USA. born: 28.03.1930.
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

Ph.1990 Henry Way Kendall

USA. 09.12.1926-15.02.1999.
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

Ph.1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

France. 24.10.1932-18.05.2007.
“for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers”

Ph.1992 Georges Charpak

Switzerland. 01.08.1924-29.09.2010.
“for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber”

Ph.1993 Russell Alan Hulse

USA. born: 28.11.1950.
“for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation”

Ph.1993 Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.

USA. born: 29.03.1941.
“for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation”

Ph.1994 Clifford Glenwood Shull

USA. 23.09.1915-31.03.2001.
“for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter””for the development of the neutron diffraction technique”

Ph.1994 Bertram Nevill Brockhouse

Canada. 15.07.1918-13.10.2003.
“for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter””for the development of neutron spectroscopy”

Ph.1995 Martin Lewis Perl

USA. born: 24.06.1927.
“for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics””for the discovery of the tau lepton”

Ph.1995 Frederick Reines

USA. 16.03.1918-26.08.1998.
“for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics””for the detection of the neutrino”

Ph.1996 Robert Coleman Richardson

USA. born: 26.07.1937.
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3″

Ph.1996 Douglas Dean Osheroff

USA. born: 01.08.1945.
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3″

Ph.1996 David Morris Lee

USA. born: 20.01.1931.
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3″

Ph.1997 William Denis Phillips

USA. born: 05.11.1948.
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

Ph.1997 Steven Chu

USA. born: 28.02.1948.
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

Ph.1997 Claude Nessime Cohen-Tannoudji

France. born: 01.04.1933.
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

Ph.1998 Robert Betts Laughlin

USA. born: 01.11.1950.
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

Ph.1998 Daniel Chee Tsui

USA. born: 28.02.1939.
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

Ph.1998 Horst Ludwig Störmer

USA. born: 06.04.1949.
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

Ph.1999 Martinus Justinus Godefriedus Veltman

the Netherlands. born: 27.06.1931.
“for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics”

Ph.1999 Gerardus’t Hooft

the Netherlands. born: 05.07.1946.
“for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics”

Ph.2000 Herbert Kroemer

USA. born: 25.08.1928.
“for basic work on information and communication technology””for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics”

Ph.2000 Jack St. Clair Kilby

USA. born: 08.11.1923.
“for basic work on information and communication technology””for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit”

Ph.2000 Zhores Ivanovich Alferov

Russia. born: 15.03.1930.
“for basic work on information and communication technology””for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics”

Ph.2001 Eric Allin Cornell

USA. born: 19.12.1961.
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

Ph.2001 Wolfgang Ketterle

USA. born: 21.10.1957.
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

Ph.2001 Carl Edwin Wieman

USA. born: 26.03.1951.
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

Ph.2002 Raymond Davis Jr.

USA. 14.10.1914-31.05.2006.
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”

Ph.2002 Masatoshi Koshiba

Japan. born: 19.09.1926.
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”

Ph.2002 Riccardo Giacconi

USA. born: 06.10.1931.
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources”

Ph.2003 Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov

USA. born: 25.06.1928.
“for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

Ph.2003 Sir Anthony James Leggett

USA. born: 26.03.1938.
“for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

Ph.2003 Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg

Russia. 04.10.1916-08.11.2009.
“for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

Ph.2004 David Jonathan Gross

USA. born: 19.02.1941.
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

Ph.2004 Hugh David Politzer

USA. born: 31.08.1949.
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

Ph.2004 Frank Anthony Wilczek

USA. born: 15.05.1951.
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

Ph.2005 Roy Jay Glauber

USA. born: 01.09.1925.
“for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence”

Ph.2005 John Lewis Hall

USA. born: 21.08.1934.
“for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique”

Ph.2005 Theodor Wolfgang Hänsch

Germany. born: 30.10.1941.
“for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique”

Ph.2006 George Fitzgerald Smoot

USA. born: 20.02.1945.
“for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”

Ph.2006 John Cromwell Mather

USA. born: 07.08.1946.
“for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”

Ph.2007 Albert Fert

France. born: 07.03.1938.

“for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance”

Ph.2007 Peter Grünberg

Germany. born: 18.05.1939.

“for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance”

Ph.2008 Yoichiro Nambu

USA. born: 18.01.1921.
“for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics”

Ph.2008 Makoto Kobayashi

Japan. born: 07.04.1944.
“for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature”

Ph.2008 Toshihide Maskawa

Japan. born: 07.02.1940.
“for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature”

Ph.2009 Charles Kuen Kao

China. born: 04.11.1933.

“for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication”

Ph.2009 Willard Sterling Boyle

USA. born: 19.08.1924.

“for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor”

Ph.2009 George Elwood Smith

USA. born: 10.05.1930.
“for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor”

Ph.2010 Andre Konstantinovich Geim

UK. born: 01.10.1958.

“for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”

Ph.2010 Konstantin Sergeyevich Novoselov

UK. born: 23.08.1974.
“for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”

Ph.2011 Adam Guy Riess

USA. born: 16.12.1969.
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”

Ph.2011 Brian P. Schmidt

USA. born: 24.02.1967.
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”

Ph.2011 Saul Perlmutter

USA. born: 1959.
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”