Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Ch.1901 Jacobus Henricus van’t Hoff

The Netherlands. 30.08.1852-01.03.1911.

“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions”

Ch.1902 Hermann Emil Fischer

Germany. 09.10.1852-15.07.1919.

“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses”

Ch.1903 Svante August Arrhenius

Sweden. 19.02.1859-02.10.1927.

“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation”

Ch.1904 Sir William Ramsay

UK. 02.10.1852-23.07.1916.

“in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system”

Ch.1905 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer

Germany. 31.10.1835-20.08.1917.

“in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds”

Ch.1906 Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan

France. 28.09.1852-20.02.1907.

“in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him”

Ch.1907 Eduard Buchner

Germany. 20.05.1860-13.08.1917.

“for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation”

Ch.1908 Ernest Lord Rutherford

UK and New Zealand. 30.08.1871-19.10.1937.

“for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances”

Ch.1909 Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald

Germany. 02.09.1853-04.04.1932.

“in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction”

Ch.1910 Otto Wallach

Germany. 27.03.1847-26.02.1931.

“in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds”

Ch.1911 Marie Curie, née Sklodowska

France. 07.11.1867-04.07.1934.

“in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element”

Ch.1912 Paul Sabatier

France. 03.08.1858-04.03.1928. Университет в Тулузе

“За метод гидрогенизации органических соединений в присутствии мелкодисперсных металлов, который резко стимулировал развитие органической химии в последние годы”

Ch.1912 François Auguste Victor Grignard

France. 06.05.1871-13.12.1935.

“for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry”

Ch.1913 Alfred Werner

Switzerland. 12.12.1866-15.11.1919.

“in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry”

Ch.1914 Theodore William Richards

USA. 31.01.1868-02.04.1928.

“in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements”

Ch.1915 Richard Martin Willstätter

Germany. 13.08.1872-03.08.1942.

“for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll”

Ch.1918 Fritz Haber

Germany. 09.12.1868-29.01.1934.

“for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements”

Ch.1920 Walther Hermann Friedrich Nernst

Germany. 25.06.1864-18.11.1941.

“in recognition of his work in thermochemistry”

Ch.1921 Frederick Soddy

UK. 02.09.1877-22.09.1956.

“for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes”

Ch.1922 Francis William Aston

UK. 01.09.1877-20.11.1945.

“for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule”

Ch.1923 Fritz Pregl

Austria. 03.09.1869-13.12.1930.

“for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances”

Ch.1925 Richard Adolf Zsigmondy

Germany. 01.04.1865-23.09.1929.

“for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry”

Ch.1926 Theodor (“The”) Svedberg

Sweden. 30.08.1884-25.02.1971.

“for his work on disperse systems”

Ch.1927 Heinrich Otto Wieland

Germany. 04.06.1877-05.08.1957.

“for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances”

Ch.1928 Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus

Germany. 25.12.1876-09.06.1959.

“for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins”

Ch.1929 Sir Arthur Harden

UK. 12.10.1865-17.06.1940.

“for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes”

Ch.1929 Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin

Sweden. 15.02.1873-06.11.1964.

“for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes”

Ch.1930 Hans Eugen Fischer

Germany. 27.07.1881-31.03.1945.

“for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin”

Ch.1931 Friedrich Karl Rudolf Bergius

Germany. 11.10.1884-30.03.1949.

“in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods”

Ch.1931 Carl Bosch

Germany. 27.08.1874-26.04.1940.

“in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods”

Ch.1932 Irving Langmuir

USA. 31.01.1881-16.08.1957.

“for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry”

Ch.1934 Harold Clayton Urey

USA. 29.04.1893-05.01.1981.

“for his discovery of heavy hydrogen”

Ch.1935 Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie

France. 19.03.1900-14.08.1958.

“in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”

Ch.1935 Irène Joliot-Curie

France. 12.09.1897-17.03.1956.

“in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”

Ch.1936 Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye

Germany. 24.03.1884-02.11.1966.

“for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases”

Ch.1937 Sir Walter Norman Haworth

UK. 19.03.1883-19.03.1950.

“for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C”

Ch.1937 Paul Karrer

Switzerland. 21.04.1889-18.06.1971.

“for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2″

Ch.1938 Richard Kuhn

Germany. 03.12.1900-01.08.1967.

“for his work on carotenoids and vitamins”

Ch.1939 Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt

Germany. 24.03.1903-18.01.1995.

“for his work on sex hormones”

Ch.1939 Lavoslav (Leopold) Stephen Ružička

Switzerland. 13.09.1887-26.09.1976.

“for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes”

Ch.1943 George de Hevesy

Hungary. 01.08.1885-05.07.1966.

“for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes”

Ch.1944 Otto Hahn

Germany. 08.03.1879-28.07.1968.

“for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei”

Ch.1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen

Finland. 15.01.1895-11.11.1973.

“for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method”

Ch.1946 John Howard Northrop

USA. 05.07.1891-27.05.1987.

“for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”

Ch.1946 James Batcheller Sumner

USA. 19.11.1887-12.08.1955.

“for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized”

Ch.1946 Wendell Meredith Stanley

USA. 16.08.1904-15.06.1971.

“for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”

Ch.1947 Sir Robert Robinson

UK. 13.09.1886-08.02.1975.

“for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids”

Ch.1948 Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius

Sweden. 10.08.1902-29.10.1971.

“for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins”

Ch.1949 William Francis Giauque

USA. 12.05.1895-28.03.1982.

“for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures”

Ch.1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels

Germany. 23.01.1876-07.03.1954.

“for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis”

Ch.1950 Kurt Alder

Germany. 10.07.1902-20.06.1958.

“for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis”

Ch.1951 Edwin Mattison McMillan

USA. 18.09.1907-07.09.1991.

“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”

Ch.1951 Glenn Theodore Seaborg

USA. 19.04.1912-25.02.1999.

“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”

Ch.1952 Richard Laurence Millington Synge

UK. 28.10.1914-18.08.1994.

“for their invention of partition chromatography”

Ch.1952 Archer John Porter Martin

UK. 01.03.1910-18.07.2002.

“for their invention of partition chromatography”

Ch.1953 Hermann Staudinger

Germany. 23.03.1881-08.09.1965.

“for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry”

Ch.1954 Linus Carl Pauling

USA. 28.02.1901-19.08.1994.

“for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances”

Ch.1955 Vincent du Vigneaud

USA. 18.05.1901-11.12.1978.

“for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone”

Ch.1956 Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood

UK. 19.06.1897-09.10.1967.

“for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions”

Ch.1956 Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov

Russia. 15.04.1896-25.09.1986.

“for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions”

Ch.1957 Lord Alexander Robertus Todd

UK. 02.10.1907-10.01.1997.

“for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes”

Ch.1958 Frederick Sanger

UK. Born: 13.08.1918.

“for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin”

Ch.1959 Jaroslav Heyrovsky

Czechoslovakia. 20.12.1890-27.03.1967.

“for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis”

Ch.1960 Willard Frank Libby

USA. 17.12.1908-08.09.1980.

“for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science”

Ch.1961 Melvin Calvin

USA. 08.04.1911-08.01.1997.

“for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants”

Ch.1962 John Cowdery Kendrew

UK. 24.03.1917-23.08.1997.

“for their studies of the structures of globular proteins”

Ch.1962 Max Ferdinand Perutz

UK. 19.05.1914-06.02.2002.

“for their studies of the structures of globular proteins”

Ch.1963 Karl Waldemar Ziegler

Germany. 26.11.1898-12.08.1973.

“for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers”

Ch.1963 Giulio Natta

Italy. 26.02.1903-02.05.1979.

“for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers”

Ch.1964 Dorothy Mary Crowfoot-Hodgkin

UK. 12.05.1910-29.07.1994.

“for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances”

Ch.1965 Robert Burns Woodward

USA. 10.04.1917-08.07.1979.

“for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis”

Ch.1966 Robert Sanderson Mulliken

USA. 07.06.1896-31.10.1986.

“for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method”

Ch.1967 Manfred Eigen

Germany. Born: 09.05.1927.

“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

Ch.1967 Lord George Hornidge Porter

UK. 06.12.1920-31.08.2002.

“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

Ch.1967 Ronald George Wreyford Norrish

UK. 09.11.1897-07.06.1978.

“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

Ch.1968 Lars Onsager

USA. 27.11.1903-05.10.1976.

“for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes”

Ch.1969 Odd Hassel

Norway. 17.05.1897-11.05.1981.

“for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry”

Ch.1969 Sir Derek Harold Richard Barton

UK. 08.09.1918-16.03.1998.

“for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry”

Ch.1970 Luis Federico Leloir

Argentina. 06.09.1906-02.12.1987.

“for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates”

Ch.1971 Gerhard Herzberg

Canada. 25.12.1904-03.03.1999.

“for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals”

Ch.1972 Stanford Moore

USA. 04.09.1913-23.08.1982.

“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”

Ch.1972 Christian Boehmer Anfinsen, Jr.

USA. 26.03.1916-14.05.1995.

“for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation”

Ch.1972 William Howard Stein

USA. 25.06.1911-02.02.1980.

“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”

Ch.1973 Ernst Otto Fischer

Germany. 10.11.1918-23.07.2007.

“for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds”

Ch.1973 Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson

UK. 14.07.1921-26.09.1996.

“for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds”

Ch.1974 Paul John Flory

USA. 19.06.1919-08.09.1985.

“for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules”

Ch.1975 Vladimir Prelog

Switzerland. 23.07.1906-07.01.1998.

“for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions”

Ch.1975 Sir John Warcup Cornforth

UK. Born: 07.09.1917.

“for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions”

Ch.1976 William Nunn Lipscomb, Jr.

USA. Born: 09.12.1919.

“for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding”

Ch.1977 Ilya Romanovich Prigozhin

USA. 25.01.1917-28.05.2003.

“for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures”

Ch.1978 Peter Dennis Mitchell

UK. 29.09.1920-10.04.1992.

“for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory”

Ch.1979 Herbert Charles Brown

USA. 22.05.1912-19.12.2004.

“for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis”

Ch.1979 Georg Wittig

Germany. 16.06.1897-26.08.1987.

“for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis”

Ch.1980 Paul Berg

USA. Born: 30.06.1926.

“for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA”

Ch.1980 Walter Gilbert

USA. Born: 21.03.1932.

“for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”

Ch.1980 Frederick Sanger

UK. Born: 13.08.1918.

“for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”

Ch.1981 Kenichi Fukui

Japan. 04.10.1918-09.01.1998.

“for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions”

Ch.1981 Roald Hoffmann

USA. Born: 18.07.1937.

“for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions”

Ch.1982 Sir Aaron Klug

UK. Born: 11.08.1926.

“for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes”

Ch.1983 Henry Taube Таубе (Тоб) Генри (Taube Henri)

USA. 30.11.1915-16.11.2005.

“for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes”

Ch.1984 Robert Bruce Merrifield

USA. 15.07.1921-14.05.2006.

“for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix”

Ch.1985 Herbert Aaron Hauptman

USA. Born: 14.02.1917.

“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”

Ch.1985 Jerome Karle

USA. Born: 18.06.1918.

“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”

Ch.1986 Dudley Robert Herschbach

USA. Born: 18.06.1932.

“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

Ch.1986 Yuan Tseh Lee

USA. Born: 19.11.1936.

“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

Ch.1986 John Charles Polanyi

Canada. Born: 23.01.1929.

“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

Ch.1987 Jean-Marie Piere Lehn

France. Born: 30.09.1939.

“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

Ch.1987 Donald James Cram

USA. 22.04.1919-17.06.2001.

“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

Ch.1987 Charles John Pedersen

USA. 03.10.1904-26.10.1989.

“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

Ch.1988 Hartmut Michel

Germany. Born: 18.07.1948.

“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

Ch.1988 Robert Huber

Germany. Born: 20.02.1937.

“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

Ch.1988 Johann Deisenhofer

USA. Born: 30.09.1943.

“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

Ch.1989 Sidney Altman

USA. Born: 07.05.1939.

“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”

Ch.1989 Thomas Robert Cech

USA. Born: 08.12.1947.

“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”

Ch.1990 Elias James Corey

USA. Born: 12.07.1928.

“for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis”

Ch.1991 Richard Robert Ernst

Switzerland. Born: 14.08.1933.

“for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy”

Ch.1992 Rudolph Arthur Marcus

USA. Born: 21.07.1923.

“for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems”

Ch.1993 Michael Smith

Canada. 26.04.1932-04.10.2000.

“for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies”

Ch.1993 Kary Banks Mullis

USA. Born: 28.12.1944.

“for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method”

Ch.1994 George Andrew Olah

USA. Born: 22.05.1927.

“for his contribution to carbocation chemistry”

Ch.1995 Mario Jose Molina

USA. Born: 19.03.1943.

“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

Ch.1995 Paul Josef Crutzen

Germany. Born: 03.12.1933.

“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

Ch.1995 Frank Sherwood Rowland

USA. Born: 28.06.1927.

“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

Ch.1996 Robert Foide Curl Jr.

USA. Born: 23.08.1933.

“for their discovery of fullerenes”

Ch.1996 Richard Errett Smalley

USA. Born: 06.06.1943.

“for their discovery of fullerenes”

Ch.1996 Sir Harold Walther Kroto

UK. Born: 07.10.1939.

“for their discovery of fullerenes”

Ch.1997 Jens-Christian Skou

Denmark. Born: 08.10.1918.

“for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase”

Ch.1997 John Ernest Walker

UK. Born: 07.01.1941.

“for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”

Ch.1997 Paul Delos Boyer

USA. Born: 31.07.1918.

“for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”

Ch.1998 Walter Kohn

USA. Born: 09.03.1923.

“for his development of the density-functional theory”

Ch.1998 John Anthony Pople

UK. 31.10.1925-15.03.2004. Северо-Западный университет в Эванстоне (штат Иллинойс) – Премия также присуждена Кону В.

“for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry”

Ch.1999 Ahmed Hassan Zewail

USA. Born: 26.02.1946.

“for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy”

Ch.2000 Alan Jay Heeger

USA. Born: 22.01.1936.

“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

Ch.2000 Alan Graham MacDiarmid

USA. 14.04.1927-07.02.2007.

“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

Ch.2000 Hideki Shirakawa

Japan. Born: 20.08.1936. Университет Цукубы – Премия также присуждена Хигеру А. и МакДайэрмиду Э.

“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

Ch.2001 Ryoji Noyori

Japan. Born: 03.09.1938.

“for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”

Ch.2001 William Standish Knowles

USA. Born: 01.06.1917.

“for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”

Ch.2001 Karl Barry Sharpless

USA. Born: 28.04.1941.

“for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions”

Ch.2002 John Bennett Fenn

USA. 15.06.1917-10.12.2010.

“for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules”
“for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”

Ch.2002 Kurt Wüthrich

Switzerland. Born: 04.10.1938.

“for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution”

Ch.2002 Koichi Tanaka

Japan. Born: 03.08.1959.

“for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules”
“for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”

Ch.2003 Peter Agre

USA. Born: 30.01.1949.

“for the discovery of water channels”

Ch.2003 Roderick MacKinnon

USA. Born: 19.02.1956.

“for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels”

Ch.2004 Aaron Ciechanover

Israel. Born: 01.10.1947.

“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

Ch.2004 Avram Hershko

Israel. Born: 31.12.1937.

“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

Ch.2004 Irwin Rose

USA. Born: 16.07.1926.

“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

Ch.2005 Yves Chauvin

France. Born: 10.10.1930.

“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”

Ch.2005 Robert Howard Grubbs

USA. Born: 27.02.1942.

“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”

Ch.2005 Richard Royce Schrock

USA. Born: 04.01.1945.

“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”

Ch.2006 Roger David Kornberg

USA. Born: 24.04.1947.

“for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription”

Ch.2007 Gerhard Ertl

Germany. Born: 10.10.1936.

“for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces”

Ch.2008 Osamu Shimomura

USA. Born: 27.08.1928.

“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

Ch.2008 Martin Chalfie

USA. Born: 15.01.1947.

“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

Ch.2008 Roger Yonchien Tsien

USA. Born: 01.02.1952.

“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

Ch.2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan

UK. Born: 1952.

“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”

Ch.2009 Thomas Arthur Steitz

USA. Born: 23.08.1940.

“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”

Ch.2009 Ada E. Yonath

Israel. Born: 22.06.1939.

“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”

Ch.2010 Richard Fred Heck

USA. Born: 15.08.1931.

“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”

Ch.2010 Ei-ichi Negishi

USA. Born: 14.07.1935.

“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”

Ch.2010 Akira Suzuki

Japan. Born: 12.09.1930.

“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”

Ch.2011 Dan Shechtman

Israel. Born: 24.01.1941.

“for the discovery of quasicrystals”